Of a 6.42 percent of final energy consumption in transport and some 2,283 kilo-tonnes of oil equivalent in 2020, to 5.73 percent and 1,568 ktep in 2030. This is the evolution, in decline, that raises the National Integrated Energy and Climate Plan (PNIEC) for the participation of biofuels in transport. In addition, despite acknowledging that “compliance with the objectives of consumption of advanced biofuels requires a specific boost of their production, which is still very low”, only gives them 1.80 percent by 2030.
This percentage (1.80) for advanced biofuels seems even more limited because it includes biomethane and the only biodiesel produced with residual raw materials, that coming from used cooking oils and animal fats. Added to this 1.80 the 3.93 percent predicted for the biofuels of cultures in the transport for 2030, the percentage stays in the 5.73, below the 6.42 predicted for 2020.
At the end of last year, the Biofuels section of the Association of Renewable Energy Companies (APPA) called for “an objective of renewable energy in transportation of at least 17 percent by 2030” and “maintain the current mandatory mechanism for the sale or consumption of biofuels, with a growing path of annual obligations from 8.5 percent already set for 2020, which should be complemented with specific and separate objectives in gasoline and gas oil. ”
Now they understand that “although the target of renewable energies in transport proposed for 2030 (22.2 percent) seems positive (they asked for 17 percent), since more than double the target set for 2020 (10 percent), the contribution it foresees for biofuels in 2030 would imply a significant decrease both in relative and absolute terms with respect to the figures estimated for 2020. ”
The only renewable technology that goes down
As PNIEC recognizes, the advance of renewables in the 2021-2030 period is very relevant in “almost all economic sectors”. And that “almost” refers exclusively to biofuels in transport, the only sector in which the contribution falls, going from 2,283 ktoe in 2020 to 1,568 ktep in 2030.
“Biofuels would thus be the only renewable technology that would decrease their contribution between 2020 and 2030, a proposal that seems totally unacceptable when the PNIEC itself recognizes that 26 million road vehicles (84 percent of the park) will continue to operate with engines combustion in 2030, “says Manuel Bustos, director of APPA Biofuels.
For the PNIEC, “the decarbonisation of transport will be achieved by reducing consumption (for example, promoting modal shift) and with the contribution of different technologies (mainly biofuels and renewable electricity)”. The low percentages granted to biofuels leads to an “accelerated introduction of the electric vehicle”, which is expected to reach five million units in 2030.
However, the plan recognizes that “biofuels are the most widely available renewable technology in transportation and currently used,” and that “for certain sectors such as heavy vehicles (whose consumption is a relevant part of the total corresponding to road transport) and aviation, will continue to be the only means of reducing the use of fossil fuels during the next few years “.
Only 0.11 percent advanced, out of used oils and animal fats
With regard to advanced biofuels, the PNIEC exclusively dedicates one of its measures to it, aware of its low level of development and establishes a series of action mechanisms to promote them. Among them is the establishment of a specific obligation of sale or consumption for the period 2021-2030, which remains for this last year at 0.11 percent for others other than those from used cooking oils and animal fats and a 1.69 percent for the latter.
APPA Biofuels, in general, the measures to promote the production and use of advanced biofuels seem appropriate, but “it is shocking that foresee that the contribution of the same for 2030 will be only 0.11 percent of final consumption of energy in transportation, when the Directive obliges States to establish a 3 percent target for that year “.
Label mixtures and specific objectives for aviation
On the other hand, for Bustos the plan “does not bet enough for biofuels made from used cooking oil and animal fats, since it limits its contribution for 2030 to 1.69 percent without Consider the possibility of requesting the European Commission to exceed the default limit established in the Directive (1.7 percent) “.
The rest of the mechanisms to promote these biofuels focus on adapting the certification system to collect them specifically, particularly biomethane; a program of aid for facilities that produce them; promotion of consumption of labeled blends of biofuels in service stations and the application of reduced rates in the special hydrocarbon tax; and establishment of specific objectives for the consumption of biofuels in aviation.